Sunday, August 26, 2012

The mysterious Fallardeau who died at Kamloops, 1855

In the unpublished memoirs of Alexander Caulfield Anderson's oldest son, James Robert Anderson, the boy tells a story that talks of one of the men who worked, first at Fort Alexandria, and later at Kamloops.
Here's James' story: There are a number of other fur traders mentioned in the story but it is the French Canadian employee, who appears at the end of the story, that we are interested in.

In 1848, "my father had been transferred to the charge of Fort Colvile and we all moved to Kamloops where we, mother and family, spent the summer whilst my father was absent on his journey to Fort Langley...
"We were quite a large party on leaving Alexandria, as besides ourselves, Mr. Manson, his wife and family were in the party....
"I have a good cause to remember Lac la Hache for it was in that vicinity the following incident took place.
"I was riding my spirited little horse Petit Cendre ...; we were on a level plain, my sister by my side, when an eagle's nest distracted my attention, and carelessly dropping the reins, my horse in stooping to take a bite of grass stepped on them and throwing up his head snapped them.
"In an instant with one bound he cleared the space in front where the elders were riding and set off at a mad race across the plain.
"My horse was by odds the swiftest in the whole brigade so that when I looked behind the last of them were seen far behind, my father alone was scouring across the plain in a vain effort to head me off.
"A hill on my left, I fervently hoped was in my line of travel, but no, the road took through a dense wood and I realized that my danger was imminent....
"Two Indian women whom I met scurried away in terror instead of making any attempt to stop my horse, evidently believing I was from another world.
"Shortly after entering the wood the trail was blocked by a fallen tree, which had jammed about six or seven feet from the ground, and the road had therefore deviated and been made round the stump.
"My horse never hesitated but rushed madly up to the obstacle; holding to the pommel of my saddle I threw myself to one side and instantly had safely passed the obstruction...
Before I realized the cause of a wild yell, found myself in the middle of a cavalcade of Indians who instantly captured my horse.
"As luck would have it, amongst the Indians was a French Canadian, Fallardeau by name -- how he came to be here I do not to this day know, but it was through him I was enabled to make known my plight.
"A few minutes after my father came racing through the woods having made a detour, and after a time everybody else, the women folk in tears.
"Provided with a hair rope bridle I continued the journey on my now winded horse...."

This "Fallardeau" is the man we are interested in in this posting.
As James knew him, I must presume he is the Fallardeau who worked at Fort Alexandria under Alexander Caulfield Anderson.
Bruce Watson lists three Fallardeaus in his book, Lives Lived..
Louis Fallardeau was a French Canadian who spent most of his time in the northwest coast posts, and at Fort Victoria, but by 1860 was in New Caledonia -- it cannot be him.
Michel Fallardeau supposedly died in 1855, but he was in New Caledonia and was the man that Bruce Watson says was at Fort Alexandria.
Narcisse Fallardeau was a French Canadian who spent most of his time at Fort Langley as James Murray Yale's cook or servant -- clearly it was not this man.
There are no more Fallardeau men listed in his book -- but that doesn't mean there were no more.

Here's what Bruce Watson says about Michel Fallardeau:
Birth: 1806, Mixed descent
Death: 1855
Michel Fallardeau joined the service of the HBC in 1827 and came west with the returning York Factory Express in the fall.
For the next twenty-four years, he worked at mainland interior posts as a middleman and likely spent most of his time at Thompson River.
He appeared to have transactions with the Company until about 1854.
The records are not clear but, around 1855, Michel Fallardeau may have been beaten so severely by Paul Fraser that he died two days later.
Morice reports an apparent exchange between the builder of Fallardeau's coffin and Paul Fraser two days after the event, when Fraser indicated that rough boards would be too good for the rascal Fallardeau.
The coffin builder, Baptiste, the Iroquois, replied that rough boards would be too good for Fraser.
A short time later, as the story goes, Paul Fraser was killed by a falling tree.
This does not square with the records, for Michel Fallardeau goes off the records around 1851 but continues on the Sundries accounts which could mean that he may or may not have died.
However, there is no mention of his death.
Morice obviously got this information through oral tradition and the facts of the actual occurrence have yet to be sorted out.
Michel Fallardeau had one wife and one recorded child.
Most likely when he was in the Thompson river area he married Jenny Lucy Shuswap.
On June 30, when Jenny was at Fort Langley, daughter Angelique was baptized.
Another son may have been Louis."

So, with the new information I have just acquired I am interested to find that Michel Fallardeau was dropped from the records in 1851.
This tends to confirm that it was Michel Fallardeau who caught young James' horse, and that it was the same man that worked under Anderson at Fort Alexandria.
It is likely there is no other Fallardeau in New Caledonia.

I have heard this story many times over, and when in my book I wrote about an argument between Paul Fraser and Alexander Caulfield Anderson in 1850, I wondered if Anderson had heard about the beating death of Michel Fallardeau:
From The Pathfinder:
"Fort Langley buzzed with the news of the gold rush in California. To deter desertions, the gentlemen allowed a shorter break than was usual, and the work of the return journey soon began. There was no disagreement between Anderson and Manson this year, but Douglas reported to Governor Simpson that Anderson and Paul Fraser had argued:
"Fraser as usual promises great things, more I fear than can be reasonably expected from him. He had an unfortunate tongue, which is a never failing source of trouble to himself and all around him. Anderson was very bitter with him at Langley about some reports to his prejudice and was disposed to go to great lengths with him but I advised him to drop the matter and patched up a reconciliation on Fraser's solemn promise of amendment for the future -- which I fear was forgotten as soon as the parties separated.""

I now know that it was not Fallardeau's death that sparked the argument.
From records I collected after I wrote The Pathfinder, I can guess what the argument was about -- but I still did not know when Fallardeau died.
Now I do....

This line, taken from the Fort St. James post journals in HBCA, will help to clear up the mystery:
On Friday, March 7th 1851 ... "Fallardeau, one of the Cos Servants, died at Alexr this latter end of last month otherwise all well there."
This is a primary source, and Morice's quotation a secondary.
It would be interesting to know who Paul Fraser thought rough boards were good enough for, but it appears to be another man than Michel Fallardeau.
His son, perhaps?
Michel Fallardeau would have been in his forties when he died -- old enough to have had a son in the fur trade.

Saturday, August 25, 2012

Montrose McGillivray

I have a little news for the McGillivray descendants I have talked to in the past -- I have discovered the records of Montrose McGillivray death in the Fort St. James post journals.
Monrose McGillivray was one of the men who accompanied Alexander Caulfield Anderson on his second exploration down and up the Fraser River, in 1847.

First, here is his story from Bruce Watson's Lives Lived West of the Divide:
McGillivray, Montrose, 1822-1850, Mixed Descent
Birth: British North America, 1822. Born to Simon McGillivray and a Native woman
(I can add that he was grandson of William McGillivray of the North West Company)
Death: probably Fort St. James, January 22, 1850
Montrose McGillivray was baptised late at the age of thirteen at Red River on April 19, 1835, and, after being hired by the HBC in 1838 as a native apprentice, was attached to the Columbia District. His family status held him in good stead for, in 1841 at Fort Vancouver, he travelled with Sir George Simpson's round the world expedition for a short time. He worked at the HBC California post until he was dismissed by William Glen Rae in California for excessive drinking. McGillivray, who by this time had spent his father's legacy, felt this unfair as Rae was an even heavier drinker. The twenty-two year old then ran up a large debt and left the Company to go to Red River in 1846, but rejoined in 1847. That year he was a member of Alexander Caulfield Anderson's party searching for a north-of-49 parallel route from New Caledonia to the coast. In January 1849 in the New Caledonia area (near Quesnel, BC) McGillivray headed a punitive group of fifteen men on a search for Tlhelh, who, to avenge the death of Tlhelh's wife, had shot a "white man," Alexis Bellanger, who may or may not have had anything to do with her death. When McGillivrary arrived at Tlhelh's Quesnel village, Donald McLean shot dead Tlhelh's uncle, Nadetnoerh, as well as Nadetnoerh's son-in-law and the son-in-law's child. The mother, possibly a daughter of Simon Plomondon, was injured in the should. Both McGillivray and McLeod were exonerated for this unnecessary carnage of three innocent people. Later Tlhelh was killed by another uncle, Neztel, who no doubt trying to stop the carnage and restore peace, very much regretted doing it.
Montrose McGillivray died January 22, 1850 of an inflammation of the lungs, likely tuberculosis. Members of a McGillivray family have not been traced.

Firstly, I am fascinated on reading this to find that Montrose McGillivray was a part of that slaughter of three innocent persons in New Caledonia -- I always heard the story was attributed to Donald McLean, with no mention of other persons present. So, Montrose's part in the story is news to me. Just so you know I have checked it out, and this happened after Alexander Caulfield Anderson left Fort Alexandria -- it was not he who forgave these men for their behaviour.

Secondly, in Fort Vancouver letters I have found the letter that Montrose McGillivray carried north to Fort Alexandria, to AC Anderson. It reads, in part:
"Vancouver, January 12th 1847 to A.C.Anderson,
"Dear sir; We have to acknowledge the receipt of your different communications from Langley and Alexandria with your report and Sketch of the different routes you examined, and we have now to convey to you our approbation of the zeal manifested by you in the performance of your arduous duty and the success that attended it.
"Recent information received by chief Factor Douglas a short time since induces us to hope that a route can be opened from Langley to Thompson's River even more favourable than the one you returned by. A great objection to it appears solely to arise from the depth of snow that the Brigade might be liable to meet with and while there is a prospect of another route being found preferable we feel most anxious to ascertain if it be so ere we decide on commencing operations.
"We consider it highly expedient that it should be explored and we see none more fit or suitable for the Expedition than yourself and we have therefore to request you will take the necessary measures to carry the same into effect. The enclose instructions and Sketch will [fully] explain to you the route and every particular connected with it......
"Montrose McGillivray and Michael Ogden are appointed to accompany you and as they do not form any part of the interior Brigade their loss will not be felt.... Peter Skene Ogden and James Douglas."

Now, from the Fort St. James post journals, 1846-1851, in HBCA:
"Monday, 20th January 1850.... in the evening an Indian arrived from Fraser's Lake and gave me information of the melancholy intelligence of the death of Mr. Montrose McGillivray. This [poor] young man has been considered dangerously ill some time ago and Mr. McKenzie was sent to remain with him. He then recovered much and was considered by Mr. McK as [per not in danger]."
The words is square brackets were hard to read and may not be correct.
"Wednesday, February 20... Mr. McKenzie returned to Fraser's Lake accompanied by James Boucher, who has been sent to bring hither the widow & family of the late Mr. McGillivray....
"Thursday, May 18th ... in the morning the property of the late Mr. Montrose McGillivray was disposed of by auction & sold very high indeed, several of the articles notwithstanding their having been much worn, fetched three times the original price."

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Up the Columbia River north of Fort Colvile, with the York Factory Express

How interesting to find that potatoes, once again, plays an important role in this section of the journal.
The potato story goes back to the Northwesters and their habit of importing expensive provisions into the territory to feed their men, rather than growing their own food.
In 1821, the HBC took over the NWC posts, and Governor George Simpson, who toured the district a few years later, ordered that the forts west of the Rocky Mountains get used to growing more of their own food.
He also ordered that Spokane House be closed down and Fort Colvile be constructed near Kettle Falls, on the Columbia River, where there was more good farmland than could be found in the district around Spokane House.
Chief Factor John McLoughlin placed James Birnie in charge of Spokane House in summer 1825, and instructed him to plant the first crop of potatoes on the plains that surrounded the place where John Work was to begin construction of Fort Colvile later that year.
The first building built at Fort Colvile was the shed that was to hold the harvest of potatoes planted by my great-great-grandfather James Birnie.
John Work did not begin construction on the new post until the following summer.

York Factory Express Journal, 1827, by Edward Ermatinger:
March, Tuesday 17th. The accounts being completed for YF [York Factory] as far as circumstances permit Express Boat manned by 7 men under charge of Mr. E. Ermatinger leaves Fort Colvile in the evening. D[avid] Douglas, Esq, Passenger. Encamp a mile from the Fort. Perrault found himself too unwell to go out as intended, therefore Moche Otoctavin takes his place as Bowswain.
Wednesday 18th. Light snow this morning fine weather afterwards. Proceed on our journey at 1/2 pas 5am. Reach the head of the Dalles by 3pm. [this is the little Dalles near Northport, WA]. Experienced very little difficulty in ascending them. Only required to haul up with the line at two of the strongest points. An Indian overtakes us on foot with a letter from Fort Colvile. Encamp at 1/2 past 6, 8 miles above the Dalles.
19th. We had a fall of snow last night fine weather today. Continue our journey at 1/4 before 5. Pole and paddle all day. Use the line only 3 times. Encamp a short distance below McGillivray's River [Kootenay River]. Country very mountainous and many hills covered apparently with perpetual snow.
20th. Hard frost in the morning day fine. Proceed at 5am. Ascend several Rapids. Enter the first Lake [Lower Arrow Lake] at 8 o'clock and take breakfast. Afterwards hoist sail with a light breeze. Continue sailing all day and encamp at the end of the Lake at 7pm. An Indian comes to our camp with a few fish [Suckers and Tidubee or whitefish] and a small piece of cabris[?] which we exchange for a piece of dried meat.
21st, Saturday. Fine weather, but wind strong ahead. Embark at 5am. Pass the narrows and continue up the River to the entrance of the 2nd lake [Upper Arrow Lake] where we encamp at 7am. Our track this day, with the exception of a short narrow of Lakes generally not more than 1 mile wide. Passed several camps of Indians in course of the day and traded 7 pairs of Pas d'ours [snowshoes] for our journey across the mountains, gave for them 2 scalpers, 13 ball and powders, and some dried salmon. Country still mountainous and covered with snow on the hills.
Sunday 22nd. Fine weather. Start at 4am. Paddle thro' the 2nd Lake. Re-enter the river at 4pm. Find Indians encamped here. Trade from them a little bears meat and a pair of snow shoes for ammunition and tobacco. Proceed up the River 6 or 7 miles and encamp 1/2 past 6.
23rd. Fine weather. Resume our journey at 1/4 past 4am. Find the River till toward evening very good and the current slack. We then enter a narrow, banked on each side by rugged rocks, and ascend a succession of strong rapids at the head of one of which we encamp, having before us a short piece of smooth current, 7pm. The banks of the river nearly the whole way we came to day are still covered with deep snow as well as the woods. In the morning we saw a[n] Indian woman and children from whom we traded about 40 Tidubee [a small species of white fish] and suckers for a little amm. and dried salmon.
Tuesday 24th. Toward evening commences raining and continues all night. Proceed at 5am. The part of the River we have this day passed is full of Rapids and strong current with occasional pieces of smooth current. In mounting the Rapids we sometimes used the Line but more frequently the poles. Encamp at 1/4 past 7pm. Saw a beaver to day, but our gun being out of order he escaped.
Wednesday, 25th. Thick fog in the morning, fine day. Start at 1/4 past 5am. Course of the river very rapid. Take breakfast at the foot of the Rapid below the Dalles des Morts. Carry all our baggage at the lower brink of the Dalles, haul up our boat safe, tho' it is rather a dangerous place clear the Dalles about noon. While here endeavored to procure a piece of Rock Crystal, according to Dr. McLoughlin's instructions, but not knowing the exact spot where it is said to be were unable to find any. Probably the great quantity of snow on many parts of the banks of the River concealed it from our view. River becomes more rapidous as we ascend. Encamp about 7 or 8 miles above Dalles des Morts at 1/2 past 7pm.
Thursday 26th. Fine weather. Proceed at 5am. Ascend many rapids. Breakfast above the Rapids Croches. Afterwards less frequent. Pass several pieces of smooth current. Country very mountainous, snow deep. Encamp at the head of a small rapid at 1/2 past 7pm.
Friday 27th. Sharp frost in the morning, fine day. Proceed at 1/4 before 5am. and arrive at the Boat Encampment (the most northernly part of the Columbia River) between 11 and 12 o'clock. The most part of the distance we made up the river this day the current was strong but smooth with several steep Rapids. The remainder of the day we occupied in preparing our baggage for the journey across the mountains. The paper trunk (which is very heavy, say upwards of 70 lbs.) is to be carried by 3 men alternately together with their prov[ision]s and private baggage. Our other baggage is divided among the remaining four men.
Owing to the liberality of the gentlemen by whose posts we passed along the communication we were enabled nearly every night since we left Fort Vancouver to treat ourselves with potatoes at supper and finished the remains of our stock from Fort Colvile to day, probably the first ever eaten at this place. Fruits of attention to gardening.

Express Journal, Spring, 1828, by Edward Ermatinger:
April 20th. This evening the business at this place being done the Express Boats take their departure manned by 14 men and having the following passengers:
J[ohn] W[arren] Dease and J. McGillivray, Esq., Messrs. A. McDonald and Ermatinger, J. Rundal and 2 boys. Encamp at the Point above the Fort.
Monday, 21st. Fine weather -- morning sharp. Start at 6am. Stiff poling all day. Encamp at 7pm. above Riviere a mouton blanc. Passed the Little Dalles by 1/2 past 3pm.
22nd. Fine warm weather. Started at 1/2 past 4am. Continue poling all [day] and encamp below McGillivray's River at 1/2 past 6. Both Boats are gummed having become very leaky.
23rd. Fine weather. Embark at 1/2 past 4 o'clock. Enter the 1st lake between 7 and 8 am. Continued paddling all day and encamp at 7pm. near the end of the Lake. Trade a pair of snow shoes and a small piece dried meat from an Indian.
24th. Fine weather. Start at 4 am. having got thro' the first Lake we proceed up the Narrows and encamp at the end of the 2nd lake at 7pm.
25th. Fine weather. Resume at 1/2 past 4am. and paddle thro' the Lake by 3pm. See Indians and trade 3 pairs snow shoes. Continue up the River till past 7 o'clock and encamp about an hour's march above our last's encampment.
26th. Fine weather. Embark at 1/2 past 4am. Very little ice and snow on the banks of the River. Encamp at 7pm. beyond our last year's encampment, an hour's march.
Sunday, 27th. Fine weather. Embark at 4 o'clock and proceed till 7 and encamp on a Sandy Point a short distance below the Dalles des Morts.
28th. Light rain in the evening. Start at 4am. Get up the Dalles des Morts, take breakfast and gum our boats by 12 o'clock -- use the line often. Rapids very strong and frequent. Encamp at 7pm.
29th. Rain in the evening. Embark at 4am. and encamp at 7.
30th. Rain all the forenoon. Start at 1/4 past 4am. Arrive at the Boat Encampment at 1/2 past 10. Occupy the remainder of the day packing and preparing the loads.

James Douglas, Diary of a Journey from Fort Vancouver in 1835:
Saturday 4th, April. Rainy wet morning and the atmosphere so overcharged with vapours as to leave no room for any hopes of a speedy change. Notwithstanding the unfavorable state of the weather we determined to leave Colvile, as we cannot consistently with our instructions postpone our departure another minute. All the necessary arrangements being completed we recommenced our journey precisely at nine o'clock am, with two boats in which are embarked 4 passengers and 23 working men. The banks of the river on both sides rise in some places quite abruptly, on others by successive stages as it were, that is a steep ascent succeeded by steep[sic] horizontal surface leading to the next ascent, and so on to their greatest elevation varying from 2 to 300 feet above the level of the River. These hills are at no distance and confine the view to the course of the River, a circumstance which with their general sterile and rugged aspect gives a disagreeable appearance to the whole scenery. Some of the lower projecting points have a pretty effect, but assuredly owe most of their attraction to the strong contrast offered by their rugged neighbours. The tree mostly commonly met with here is the Pin Rouge which grows generally over the whole face of the country. Encamped 5 miles below the Mountain Goat River.
Sun. 5 April. A fine clear morning. Continued our route at 5 o'clock, at 6 1/2 past the Mouton Blanc River, at 11 the Flat Head River, and at 6:30 pm. we encamped at the river des eiore. The country we have passed today is much of the same description as that of yesterday.
Mon. 6. At 5 o'clock this morning we were once more on the move, a thick dense fog which did not disperse until we nearly reached McGillivray's River rendered all the surrounding objects quite indistinct. McGillivray's or Coutonais River is about 100 yards at its mouth, and derives its water from the Rocky Mountains. The Coutonais Post is built upon this river, the journey to which occupies about 22 days by water. At this place found a camp of Indians belonging to the little Chief's Band. Entered the Lake at 11 o'clock and encamped on a pretty gravelly point which may be considered half its length. High, snow covered hills on both sides.
Tues. 7th April. At four o'clock proceeded on our journey and we arrived at the upper end of the Lake at 11 o'clock including one hour's detention for breakfast. Encamped at the entrance of the 2nd Lake. Passed a few Indians during the day. 13 hours, lake; 8 hours, Narrows; 10 1/2 hours 2nd Lake.
Wed. 8. Encamped at Chutes au Bovil.
Thurs. 9. A few miles above the Lower Dalles. The Grand Bature [gravel bar] is a few points below the Dalles.
Fri. 10. Left our encampment at our usual hour half past four, and proceeded onwards very slowly owing to a succession of strong points and rapids where the pole or the line were constantly required. In the afternoon we overtook a canoe wherein were five Indians with a Canadian engage named Brissett and family, who had been sent off from Fort Colvile by Mr. [Francis] Heron [C.F., Fort Colvile] previous to my arrival there. This man's intention is to cross the mountains and it seems that Mr. Heron had pledged himself that he should be permitted to do so by the present opportunity. On his mentioning that the Indians are unwilling to proceed Mr. H. proposed that himself and family should be embarked in one of the boats. I felt the impropriety of complying with this proposal; but not being fully authorized to act, and Mr. H. being my senior and superior in rank, out of delicacy to him I assented and the man & family were accordingly permitted to embark. Called on Mr. Heron this evening and mentioned Dr. McLoughlin's orders against the embarkation of families in the Express Boats; I at the same time explained the motives which induced me to comply with his wishes, and I requested him to state explicitly whether in the event of my being called to account for this disregard of orders he was willing to bear the whole responsibility. He replied that in every case he would stand between me & the consequences.
Sat. April 11th. Clear, cold night. Reached the Dalles des Morts at 8 o'clock, and at 7pm. encamped at St. Martins Rapid.
Sunday 12. Encamped 10 miles below the Boat Encampment.
Mond. 13. First Point Woods.

A note here: According to Bruce Watson's "Lives Lived," David Thompson's Joseph St. Martin drowned September 1825 at an unknown location. I wonder if his deathplace was at the St. Martins Rapids; hence its name in James Douglas' journals?

Journal of a Trip from Vancouver to York Factory, Spring, 1847, Thomas Lowe:
April, Thursday 22nd -- Beautiful weather. Started from Colvile with the two Boats about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, and reached Dease's encampment 6 miles from the Fort. Mr. Burke & myself are the only passengers.
Friday 23rd April -- Fine weather. Made a good days work pulling against a light head wind. Passed the Little Dalles about 2pm. and encamped a miles [sic] below the Pend Oreilles River.
Saturday 24th -- Cloudy, threatening weather, but only a few drops of rain. Two or three peals of thunder in the afternoon. Wind still ahead, although light. Camped 2 miles above the Kootenie River.
Sunday 25th -- Fine day. Came to the first Lake before breakfast and camped in the evening nearly at the upper end of it. Strong head wind all day.
Monday 26th -- Started this morning at 2 o'clock, and had a strong favorable breeze for about 2 hours, after which it lulled, and were light and contrary the rest of the day. Fine pleasant weather. Camped late, about ten miles from the end of the upper Lake. Slept in the boats.
Tuesday 27th -- Fine weather. Breakfasted at the end of the upper lake, and camped a little below the Grand Batture.
Wednesday28th -- Breakfasted at the foot of the 2nd Little Dalles and had very hard work all day against rapids and strong currents. Rained in the afternoon & evening. Camped about 15 miles above the 3rd Little Dalles.
Thursday 29th -- Showery. Got up to the Dalles de Mort, made a portage of the pieces, and hauled the boats up with the line. Camped at the head of the dalles, made a fire on the rocks & slept in the boats.
Friday 30th -- Light showers. Camped about 2 miles above the River of St. Martin, on the snow.
Saturday 1st May, 1847 -- Fine weather. Got up to within 5 miles of the Boat Encampment.
Sunday 2nd -- Reached the Boat Encampment at 6 o'clock in the morning, and got the boat which is to be left hauled up, and secured alongside another which we found there. Set the people to cook provisions to take them across the mountains and got the loads arranged. Took 4 men from the boats to assist to carry until we meet the horses, and hired to Indians we found here to assist us also in carrying. One of the men who was to go out (Abraham Charbonneau) had to be left behind, being unable to walk...

Journal from Vancouver to York Factory with express, Spring 1848, by Thomas Lowe:
April, 24th Monday -- very cloudy, but no rain. Started from Colvile about 1 o'clock pm. with two boats for the Mountains. Five men from the Interior go out with us, but we had to leave two of the men here whom we brought from Vancouver, Ignace Tagoganeuras & Murdock McLeod, who are both sick and unable to cross the Mountains at present. They are to go across with Mr. [John Lee] Lewes in the Autumn, also Mrs. [Francis] Ermatinger & daughter who are likewise to pass the summer at Colvile. Mr. [Henry] Peers remains here with 7 of the Vancouver men to take out the Colvile Returns to Langley. In their stead we have embarked 5 Indians who are to return from the Boat Encampment with Joe Onowano and Louis Awetaronguash. Chief Trader Paul Fraser and one of his sons joined us here. He is going to Canada on furlough. Had a sail wind for some distance and made good progress.
April 25th Tuesday -- Warm. Breakfasted at the foot of the Little Dalles, and encamped about ten miles above the Pends d'Oreilles River.
Wednesday 26th -- Exceedingly warm, and last night the river rose about a foot. Sailed for a short time in the afternoon. When we got to the Lower Lake had a light favorable breeze and encamped about 15 miles from its entrance.
Thursday 27th -- Warm. Had a light fair wind for about 2 hours in the forenoon, after which it turned ahead, and kept so for the rest of the day. Encamped at the end of the first Lake.
Friday 28th -- Warm weather. Breakfasted near the end of the River between the Lakes. Had a head wind in the upper Lake, but pulled to within 10 miles of the end of it, and camped.
Saturday 29th -- Fine day. Breakfasted at the end of the upper Lake, and got a good distance up the River.
Sunday 30th -- Cloudy. Breakfasted at the foot of the Little Dalles, and had hard work with.....
Monday May 1st -- Cloudy through the day, and rained in the evening. Encamped on the snow at the head of the Dalles des Morts.
Tuesday 2nd -- Raining most of the day. Breakfasted a little above McKenzie's encampment. Got up to the foot of St. Martins Rapid, and encamped on the snow.
Wednesday 3rd -- Rained last night, and as the weather was mild the river rose considerably. Rainy unpleasant weather. Got up to within 10 miles of the Boat Encampment.
Thursday 4th -- Cloudy, but no rain. Reached the Boat Encampment about 8 o'clock this morning, where we found Capot Blanc with two lodges of Indians. Got one of our boats hauled up to be left here until the Autumn. Gave the men their loads & provisions, and started about 2pm.....

Journal of the Columbia Express Party, 1849, by John Charles:
April, 23rd, Monday. Left Fort Colvile for the Boat Encampment about 5pm. with two boats laden with provisions and men's property. We encamped at a small distance below Dease encampment. Cloudy weather.
24th, Tuesday. Encamped about ten miles above the "Riviere de Mouton Blanc." Experienced a very heavy shower of rain towards night.
25th, Wednesday. Had a shower of rain in the morning. At breakfast the sky cleared up and the sun shone brilliantly.Traded a beaver from an Indian. About 1 pm. we put ashore at some Indian lodges, encamped on the beach where we were informed that the lakes were still frozen over.
26th, Thursday. Reached the first lake, but encountered no ice. Encamped at sundown.
27th, Friday. Fine weather. Encamped at the end of the first lake.
28th, Saturday. Entered the second lake. Camped at sunset.
29th, Sunday. Blowing furiously all of last night and this morning. Breakfasted at the end of the Grand Lac and camped a little after Sundown. Traded some meat from an Indian in the evening.
30th, Monday. Passed the small Dalles an hour after breakfast. Tracking and poling up the Rapids almost all day. Cloudy weather. Great quantities of snow and ice along the shore.
May 1st, Tuesday. Raining almost all day. Camped at the lower end of the "Mauvaise Rapide".
2nd, Wednesday. After getting safely over the "Bad Rapid" we breakfasted. Camped at the foot of St. Martin Rapide. Beautiful weather.
3rd, Thursday. Fine weather. Camped in sight of the Rocky Mountains.
4th, Friday. Arrived at the Boat Encampment at 8am. Had one of the boats taken up the bank above high water mark. Having taken breakfast and arranged everything requisite for our trip across the mountains we commenced our march.....

Sadly, today the Boat Encampment is buried under Kinbasket Lake.
Unlike the American Columbia River, the Canadian part of the river has been little affected by the massive power projects along it route.
But the water is a little higher everywhere, and so the Columbia today is not identical to what the fur traders might have seen years ago.
It is likely that the "Mauvais Rapide," of John Charles, or the Dalles des Morts of all the other journal keepers is similar but not identical to what it used to be.
But it still exists.
Today it is called Death Rapids.

The "Rapids of Death" had been given its name in 1817 when seven North West company men came shore at its northern end, and allowed their laden canoe to be taken through the rapids on the end of a line.
The line snapped and the canoe broke to pieces in the rapids and their supplies were lost, and one by one the men starved to death in the wilderness.
There were other serious accidents in these rapids and in those that were downriver, too.
Here is a story that began at Death Rapids, and ended in another set of rapids to the south.
From the book, "John Tod: Rebel in the Ranks," by Robert C. Belyk [Horsdal & Schubart, 1995] we have the story of the incoming express of 1838, when Kamloops' John Tod was in charge:
Remember -- this is the story of an incoming express and they are travelling down the river, not up.

"Boat Encampment, as the spot was called, was where the [express] usually exchanged its horses for canoes to take it down the Columbia River, and as expected, Chief Trader Archie McDonald had sent two vessels up from Fort Colvile to assist in transport.
"However, with such a large party, the craft were entirely inadequate.
"Tod decided to split the brigade into three sections. [He went downriver in the first].
"The first part, made up mostly of the freight, was loaded into the large boat and sent on with its crew directly to Colvile, almost 200 miles down river.
"The smaller craft, carrying freight as well as a complement of voyageurs, the two missionaries and a clerk, young John McLoughlin... was sent as far as Maison des Lacs, a new outpost the Company was establishing on the Upper Arrow Lake, about 125 miles downstream.
"There the voyageurs were to discharge their passengers and freight and return to the Boat Encampment where they would pick up the third section of the brigade and continue on to Fort Colvile.
"The plan had not been well thought out, for to remove everyone from Boat Encampment, the smaller craft had to be grossly overloaded...
"On 16 October, two days after leaving Boat Encampment, the second craft, containing McLoughlin and the two priests, reached Maison des Lacs.
"The voyageurs quickly unloaded the cargo and set off again upriver....
"On 20 October the boat with guide Andre Chilifour [Chalifoux] in charge completed its return upstream to the mouth of the Canoe River.
"To accommodate everyone remaining at Boat Encampment, 26 people had to be crammed on board.
"The journey went without incident until the boat reached the first major rapids along this section of the Columbia, known as the infamous "Dalles des Morts," a stretch of white water that narrowed to no more than 60 feet across....
"For safety, Chilifour sent the passengers and some of the cargo ashore to be portaged around the rapids.
"The unaccompanied craft was sent through the rapids.
"Even in this lightened condition, the boat was damaged in the current and almost swamped.
"It was retrieved and the water emptied out, but the cargo that had been left on board was soaked and now weighed much more.
"With everyone again on board, the gunwales were hardly above the surface of the water.

"After what they had witnessed at the Dalles des Morts the passengers remained apprehensive; however, there was little choice but to go on.
"They had travelled less than 50 miles when another stretch of churning water came into view.
"Compared with the last obstacle, Little Dalles should have been only a minor difficulty, but the sign of their boat being almost destroyed at Dalles des Morts had unnerved many of the passengers.
"As the vessel neared the rocks that broke the surface of the water, waves began splashing over the sides of the boat.
"There was still time to consider making for shore, but Chilifour, faced with unloading the boat again, chose instead to head into the current.
"This was a costly mistake for some of the passengers were so frightened that they began standing up, which threatened to capsize the boat.
"Chilifour restored order just as the craft shot through the most dangerous stretch of white water.
"Before the vessel had reached safety, however, the botanist Wallace stood up and stripped off his coat.
"Panicked, he intended to swim for shore, which now seemed deceptively close.
"Taking up his young wife in his arms he jumped overboard.
"The sudden shift of weight caused the boat to overturn, throwing everyone into the cold Columbia waters.

"The death toll was high.
"Twelve people -- almost half the passengers and crew on board -- drowned.
"The victims included Wallace and his wife, Maria, the second botanist, Banks, and nine other men, women and children.
"For the shocked survivors, there was little that could be done but to haul the boat on shore and begin a search for their missing companions.
"The Columbia, though, was reluctant to give up its dead.
"Only the bodies of three children were ever recovered -- nine others were never found....."

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla)

Fort Nez Perces was a fur trade post that differed from every other post in the HBC's domain.
It was constructed in 1818, by the North West Company's wintering partner, Donald McKenzie, cousin of Sir Alexander Mackenzie (not the different spellings of the names).
Donald McKenzie was a member of the famous McKenzie clan of Inverness, Scotland, and he emigrated to Montreal about 1800.
He had been given a liberal education (that means, one centered on culture and the arts) and was supposedly to go into a ministry, but in 1810 he joined the fur trade, working as a clerk for the North West Company.
Ten years later he was still a clerk, and very discontented with the Company.
In 1810, John Jacob Astor organized the Pacific Fur Company, and Donald McKenzie immediately joined that company.
Astor's goal was to make a fortune in furs in the west, and towards that end he proposed to build a strong trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River, to take advantage of the North west coast fur trade and that of the Columbia Basin, and the valuable China market.
If you want to know how valuable the China market was to both the Americans and the British traders of the North West Company, you need to read the book: Otter Skins, Boston Ships and China Goods: the Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841, by James R. Gibson [McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992].
But I am getting off subject here...

The Pacific Fur Company proceeded to the Pacific coast by two routes: one by ship, the other by land.
Donald McKenzie shared the command of the overland party with Wilson Price Hunt, until they reached the Lower Missouri -- after that, by arrangement with Astor, Hunt assumed sole command of the expedition.
By October 1811 they had reached Andrew Henry's abandoned post on the Snake River, and leaving their horses there they continued down the Snake in canoes.
Disaster overtook them, and they broke up into several parties, each making its own way toward the Columbia River.
Donald McKenzie with five men reached Astoria "a full month in advance of Mr. Hunt, having succeeded in forcing his way through the rough mountains along the east bank of the Snake river and across the Salmon river to the Clearwater and thence to the sea in canoes." [T.C. Elliott, The Earliest Travelers on the Oregon Trail, Portland, 1912, p. 8]
In 1812 McKenzie established a trading post among the Nez Perces -- this was not Fort Nez Perces but another, the location of which cannot be positively identified unless more recent researchers have figured out where it was.
Later that year McKenzie learned of the war between the British and Americans, and hastened downriver to Astoria with the news.
It was decided to abandon the entire enterprise, and on October 16, 1813, Astoria was sold to the Nor'Westers and renamed Fort George.
Hunt returned to New York by sea, and Donald McKenzie and others travelled with the North West Company's brigade to Montreal, where they arrived in September, 1814.
He returned to New York with Astor's papers, but the American refused to rehire him.

From 1813 to 1816 the Snake river remained untrapped, except by Natives and perhaps freemen who worked the area.
But in October1816, Donald McKenzie was back at Fort George in the employ of his old employers, the North West Company.
They needed a man like him to set up a post in the interior and to traps the wealth of furs in the Snake River district.
His plans called for his setting up a post among the Walla Wallas, and James Keith, who was in charge at Fort George, reluctantly gave him 40 men.
He left Fort George in the fall but once past the Cascades found the Columbia River blocked with ice, and spent the winter with the Natives there.
In the spring he set out again; and on his return to Fort George that fall the fur traders were delighted by the wealth of furs he brought downriver with him.

It appears he made another expedition into the interior the next summer, but he had not yet built Fort Nez Perces.
He would not construct his post until the summer of 1818, when orders came from Fort William to get the new inland post constructed.
Without further delay, McKenzie was sent upriver with one hundred men and instructions to build a new post at the mouth of the Walla Walla River.
By July 11, he and his men were camped about half a mile north of the river mouth.
As there was no timber anywhere around, some men went upriver one hundred miles or more to cut timber and float it downstream, where other fur traders fished it out of the Columbia.
The fort was built; friendships were built with the local Natives and a brisk trade set up -- McKenzie purchased almost three hundred horses in the first few days of trade.
Fifty five men then set out on the first expedition inland, where they camped and trapped as far south as the Boise River.
Many of David Thompson's men were also there -- it is likely that free-trader Joseph Beaulieu was there with his family; Jaco Finlay, James Birnie, and William Kittson was there too.
So were many other unnamed fur traders.

They enjoyed many hair-raising adventures out there in the wilderness and a few men died and were scalped.
But in the end the trapping expeditions were very successful, and Donald McKenzie and his men brought many rich furs back to their base camp at Fort Nez Perces.

Like the other posts in the district, Fort Nez Perces passed into the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821.
Donald McKenzie was made Chief Factor in the Columbia district; the next year he was on the Bow River and after that at Fort Garry.
He retired in 1835, and the fort he built still stood on the Columbia River.
The men placed in charge of the post over the years were many and varied: John Warren Dease, Samuel Black, George Barnston, Pierre Pambrun, and Archibald McKinlay.

Pierre Pambrun was in charge of the post when the missionaries established their missionary at Waiilatpu; in 1841 he was thrown from his horse and severely injured.
After lingering for a few days in the care of Dr. Marcus Whitman, Pambrun died a painful death.
[His horse ended up at Fort Alexandria, by the way].
Archibald McKinlay replaced Pambrun, and he said that he warned Whitman to leave his mission on many occasions, but Whitman would not leave.
On one occasion a Cayuse chief insulted Whitman by throwing his cap into the water, and McKinley told the  Cayuse they "acted like dogs."
Shortly after that insult, a fire swept through Fort Nez Perces, destroying much of it.
It was determined to be an accident -- fire was always a hazard in these fur trade posts.
When McKinlay rebuilt the post, he built it with adobe, rather than wood.

I have several Fort Nez Perces stories to tell, and I think I will tell you the story I collected about George Barnston.
You might not know that when Alexander Caulfield Anderson left Lachine in 1832, he travelled in the brigade with George Barnston, who had just re-entered the fur trade after a short retirement.
He was still a young man.... I think he was just not impressed with the fur trade.
I have told you he was in charge of the post in 1830-31 -- one year before Anderson passed through that post for the first time, on his incoming express journey.
Here's the story:
Barnston had bought a fine horse from one of the Natives who lived near the fort; the horse was shortly afterwards stolen.
The following year the same Native man returned to the fort and tried to resell him the same horse!
Barnston immediately recognized both horse and man -- he seized his gun and shot the horse dead!
The Native (who had given up his gun at the gate) sprang on Barnston, who fought back.
A bigger and heavier man, Barnston easily outfought the Native and pummelled him out of the fort.
The fight continued all the way to the Indian camp some distance from Fort Nez Perces, where Barnston was set upon by a dozen Natives.
One Native came up with a large stone and smashed Barnston's face, knocking him unconscious.
At that moment the men from the fort rushed to Barnston's rescue and drove the Natives away.
They carried him to the fort, unconscious.
He recovered, but retired from the fur trade and returned to Montreal.
He rejoined the following year and travelled inland with Anderson as far as Albany (on Lake Superior); for some years he was in charge of Norway House and so Anderson might have rekindled their friendship there as he passed through in 1842.
He must have told Anderson many of his stories, and the two remained correspondents for years afterward; Anderson's daughter, Rose, collected botanical samples for Barnston many years later.
This is what Alexander Anderson had to say about his friend Barnston, many years later:
"George Barnston: This gentleman who was in 1827 attached to the party under Mr. McMillan, who in 1827 founded Fort Langley, entered the service of the NW Co. at an early age.
"Up to the Spring of 1831, he was in charge of Fort Nez Perces on the Columbia (Walla Walla) and retiring from the service in 1831 proceeded to Lachine, Montreal, in company with Chf. Factor Connolly.
"He re-entered the service in the following spring; we ascended the Ottawa River, and navigated the Great Lakes together in the spring of 1832 as far as Michipicoton on Lake Superior, where he diverged having been appointed to the Southern department.
"He afterwards was in charge for some years of Norway House, and subsequently of Tadousac below Quebec.
"He is now settled in Montreal and when I last heard from him, a year or two ago, had recently been elected president of the Natural History society of Montreal.
"He was a native of Edinburgh -- a man of great energy of character, of high education, and universally esteemed."
For those of you who might be researching George Barnston, there is a letter of his in Alexander Caulfield Anderson's fonds in BCA.
So that's one of my Fort Nez Perces stories: for now let us continue our express journey upriver toward Fort Colvile.

York Factory Express Journal (1827) by Edward Ermatinger:
[March] 29th. Heavy shower of rain in the evening. Day fine. Start at 5am. Pole all day. Encamp 8 or 9 miles up what is now termed the Marle Banks at the head of an island.
30th. Rain nearly all day. Embark at 1/2 past 4am. Encamp at 6pm about 2 miles above the Marle Banks 2 geese and 1 rabbit killed to day by the walking party.
31st. Fine weather. Proceed at 1/2 past 4am. at 11 o'clock Mr. A[rchibald] McDonald meets us with letters from N. Caledonia informing that their people go out by the new route. He returns with us. Proceed 1/2 way up the Priest's Rapid and encamp at 1/4 past 6pm.
April Sunday 1st. Fine weather. The Boat continues her progress up the Rapids (which are very bad this year, the water being remarkably low) at 1/2 past 5am. Clear the Rapids by 11 o'clock. Proceed up the River and encamp at 1/2 past 6pm. about 12 or 15 miles above. Hire an Indian canoe to carry some of the passengers.
2nd. Light rain in course of the day. Start 1/4 past 5am. Proceed as usual and encamp above Rapids a Potein [Paquin rapid] at 1/2 past 6 o'clock.
3rd. Fine weather. Start at 1/2 past 5am. Clear Isle des Portage [Rock Island] and take breakfast by 11 o'clock. (Hauled our boat up without discharging; gummed). Encamp 5 miles above the Piscouhoose River [Wenatchee River] at 1/2 past 6pm. Trade a little meat and a few roots (or canoe proceeds no farther).
4th. Fine weather. Embark at 1/4 past 4 o'clock. encamp a league above Clear Water Creek [probably Chelan River] at 8pm. The gentlemen afoot found a good deal of snow on the hills today.
5th. Fine weather. Resume our journey at 5 o'clock. Arrive at Okanagan at 5pm.
Friday 6th. Send off the Boat Manned by 12 men (4 being additional to return with the Doctor [McLoughlin], etc.) and Mr. [David] Douglas, Passenger, in order that they may pass the Dalles while the gentlemen remain behind to settle the accts. of this place.
7th. Fine weather. At 10 o'clock McLoughlin, McLeod, and E. Ermatinger leave Okanagan on horseback in order to join the Boat at the Grosse Roche whither they arrive at 3pm. having met with a great deal of snow the first half of the distance on the hills. The Boat only arrives at 7pm. Encamp.
8th. Fine weather. Embark at 5am. Reach nearly the upper end of the Grand Coulee and encamp at 7pm.
9th. Slight rain afternoon. Start at 5am. and encamp at 1/2 past 7pm. Perrault falls sick and is unable to work.
10th. Rain afternoon. Embark 1/2 past 4 o'clock. Pass the Spokane river at noon. Encamp from 12 to 15 miles above at 7pm.
Wednesday 11th. Fine weather. Start at 1/2 past 2 o'clock am. Pole and paddle all day. Encamp 4 miles below the Grand Rapid at 7pm. 4 pheasants killed to day.
12th. Fine weather. Proceed at 1/2 past 4am. Make 2 portages on the Grande Rapide which is extremely bad on account of the shoalness of the River. Arrive at the Kettle Falls at noon. Leave our Boat below the Portage for the Doctor's return. Get all our baggage up to Fort Colvile by 4pm. Mr. Dease only arrived yesterday from Flat Heads.
Sunday 15th. Laprade arrives from Okanagan in the afternoon with Mr. McDonald's dispatches, this being his third on horseback.

Express Journal, Spring 1828 [Edward Ermatinger]
Saturday 29th. Fine weather. Embark at 1/2 past 4am. and proceed the fore part of the day sailing with a light breeze. Afternoon the wind becomes ahead blowing fresh. Encamp at 1/2 past 7pm. a short distance above the Marle Banks. See a few Indians along the River in a miserable starving condition. One of our boats last night half filled, having been hauled up upon a stone which, the boat being very old, opened her seams. Some of our stores got wet.
31st. Fine weather, but sharp morning and evening. Start at 4am. Wind strong ahead. Arrive at the Priest's Rapids about noon and reach the head of them only at 8 o'clock pm. Encamp.
April 1st. Weather as yesterday. Start at 4am. Proceed all day against a head wind and encamp at 7 o'clock opposite the lower end of what is called the Grand Coulee.
2nd, Wednesday. Fine weather. Embark at 1/2 past 4am. Breakfast below Isle des Pierres. Haul up these Rapids, then hoist sail with a light breeze which continues to assist us occasionally the rest of the day -- pole and haul up many rapids. encamp at 1/2 past 6pm. above the River Episcouhouse. find ice and snow in many places along the banks of the Columbia. country begins to assume a more fertile appearance than since we have left the Chutes. Scattered trees now seen upon the mountains and much snow.
3rd. Fine weather. Started at 1/2 past 4am. Head wind. Encamped 2 or 3 miles above Clear Water Creek.
4th. Fine weather. Started at 4am. Snow and ice very thick along the banks of the River. Met an Indian with a note and horse from Mr. A[rchibald] McDonald, Okinagan. Set off to the fort. Boats arrive at 5pm., find Messrs. [Joseph] McGillivray, McDonald and Ermatinger here.
5th. Fine weather. Remain at this place all day collecting the accts. of the District and settling other matters relative to men.
6th. Fine weather. Start with the Boats about noon. Our number of men are now increased to 20 -- 2 from New Caledonia and 1 from this place. Passengers J. McGillivrary, Esq., Messrs. A. McDonald and E.E. Left at Okanagan for the voyage down of Mr. Connolly and Mr. [Thomas] Dears voyage to N. Caledonia: 1 bag flour; 1 keg sugar; 3/4 keg pork; 2 hams; 2lb. Hyson and 2 Twankey; 2 gallons butter. Encamp at 7pm.
Monday, 7th. Fine weather. Start at 1/2 past 4am. Passed the Gros Rocher at 1pm. Here Messrs. McGillivray and McDonald embark, having ridden across from Okanagan. Encamp at 7pm.
8th. Fine weather. Embark at 5am. Patches snow on the hills. Encamp at 1/2 past 7pm a few (2 or 3) miles above Riviere a cens Poiles (San Poil River).
9th. Day very warm. Started at 4am. Pass the Spokane Forks at 3pm. Encamp a few miles above at 1/2 past 6.
10th. Fair weather. Embark at 4am. Afternoon a light breeze favours us. Encamp about 3 miles above the Grand Rapid.
11th. Fine weather. Start at 4am. Make a Portage at the Grand Rapids. Arrive at Kettle Falls at 11 o'clock. Find Messrs [John] Work and [William] Kittson at Fort Colvile. Mr. [John Warren] Dease not yet arrived.

James Douglas, Diary of a journey from Fort Vancouver in 1835:
Wed. 11 March. The boats left Fort Nez Perces at 11 o'clock, and I departed soon afterwards with a small party of 3 men on horseback to proceed direct across land to Colvile. During the first 9 miles we followed the banks of the Columbia to the entrance of Lewis and Clarke's River which we crossed by means of a wooden canoe borrowed from a native resident there. Our route during the remainder of the day never diverged from the North bank of that river. We encamped at 6 o'clock in the evening. Two of our horses having become fatigued we left them at an Indian camp and procured 2 better ones in their stead.
Thurs. 12. Nothing unusual occurred during the day. Our road continues to follow the North bank of the river. Passed several camps of Indians.
Fri. 13. Left Lewis & Clarkes River and proceeded direct across the country. Passed Flag river and halted, the horses at a small river 2 hours march from the former and encamped at a small lake.
Saturday 14. Favoured by a bright moonlight we continued our march at half past 3 o'clock and after five hours walk halted at a small lake to feed and refresh the horses. They are very poor and require to be managed with the utmost care in order that their strength may hold out to the journey's end. The country through which we are passing is not possessed of many attractions either in point of beauty or utility. Three varieties of soils have come under my observation which I will attempt to describe. The first and best quality is found in the vicinity of water and is evidently composed of decomposed vegetable matter, as in these situations the abundant moisture is highly conducive to vegetable life. This soil is of a glossy black colour and is thickly covered with grasses. I did not examine the subsoil but if it equals the surface in quality it will answer exceedingly well for agricultural purposes. The next in quality is a vegetable mould alloyed with a large mixture of sand of a reddish colour, and a subsoil of pure unmixed sand. It produces a kind of grass with a slender stalk bounded with pointed extremity, a number of stalks rising from a connected bunch of roots with spans between each, leaving nearly 2/3 of the whole surface quite unproductive and perfectly bare of vegetation. The grass is very succulent and nourishing and of so elastic a quality as to resist the weight and pressure of snow and moisture, and stands erect on its stalk throughout the winter which preserves it from speedy decay, and renders it as it were a kind of natural hay. This variety [is] susceptible of improvement and will I doubt not improve of itself by the annual decomposition of its own productions. the third kind is merely sand which produces the largest specie of the wormwood, with very little of anything else. Encamped in the Spokan woods. Between Nez Perces and these woods have not seen a single tree.
Sun. 15. Encamped at Spokane House.
Mon. 16. Little Falls.
Wed. 17. L. Fool's River.
Wedy. March 18. Adsieve (?)
Thurs. 19. Colvile.
Wednesday 25. Received letters from Fort Vancouver dated 14th March, and Nez Perces 21st March; 7 days to Nez Perces, 4 1/2 days to this. Total 11 1/2 days including stoppages.
Friday 27. Boats arrived from Okanagan this evening.

Thomas Lowe, Journal of a Trip from Vancouver to York Factory, Spring 1847:
[April] Friday 2nd. Fine warm day. The two Boats started this afternoon for Colvile, in charge of Mr. [John Lee] Lewes. Mr. Burke also passenger. Martineau left at this place sick and I have taken .... to accompany me overland. The Fort fired a salute this morning, and another when the Boats started.
Saturday 3rd. Fine day. Started from Walla Walla at 3pm. to proceed overland to Colvile. We have 9 horses, including two light ones, and I have with me Mungo Marouna as guide, Alexis .[?]. and an Indian, besides J. Jentz.[?]. from the Fort, to take back the horses when we come to the snow. The Fort fired a salute when we started. Encamped at the Toosha River, having come about 25 miles.
Sunday 4th. Fine warm weather. Got as far as Pelluse [or Kelluse?] River, when it falls into the Nez Perces and encamped on the opposite side, having swam our horses, and crossed ourselves & property in a canoe. Found a large camp of Indians at this place, who have small patch of land under cultivation. Days march about 40 miles.
Monday 5th. Push on until 9 o'clock at night, and encamped near the lower end of the Big Lake, as there was no intermediate encampment. Made today about 60 miles. Fine in the fore part of the day, but snowing in the afternoon and all night. [One] of the horses gave out, and had to be left.
Tuesday 6th. Shortly after starting this morning, met with a party from Colvile, consisting of David Finlay and two Indians, on their way to Walla Walla for a Band of horses, as the Horses at Colvile have nearly all died this winter. Camped early, as there was a good deal of snow in the road, and no other encampment for a long distance. Made only about 15 miles.
Wednesday 7th. Fine day. Much snow on the road, and could only proceed with the [horses] about 15 miles, when we encamped and sent the horses back in charge of Wm. Mintzell. Got the snow shoes ready and the loads arranged. Slept about a couple of hours & walked the whole night. Engaged one of D[avid] Finlay's Indians to carry a load to Colvile. The snow was hard, and we walked fast.
Thursday 8th. Walked the whole day, and arrived at the Spokan River after sundown, having come upwards of 50 miles since we left the horses. Cross the River in a canoe, and encamped on the opposite bank, where were several lodges of Indians. Fine day.
Friday 9th. Started again this morning, and arrived in the forenoon at Messr. Walker & Eels, about 5 miles from the River. They supplied us with what provisions we required... Remained there until the moon got up, and walked the whole night.
Saturday 10th. Went on until 10am. when we encamped having come 20 miles since leaving the Mission. Started again at dark, but as it rained much, and the snow was too soft, we had to encamp about midnight.
Sunday 11th. Started early this morning, and got to the Colvile Mill Stream in the afternoon. Hired a canoe from an Indian, and went down in the canoe as far as [Alexander?] Dumond's, about 5 miles, at whose house we slept for the night, having come 20 miles today.
Monday 12th. Started this morning on foot, but without snow shoes, as the road is pretty clear between Dumond's and the fort. In the afternoon I had to leave Mungo and the two Indians behind, as they could proceed no farther & pushed on ahead with .... Galin, who carried the Packet Box. The road between the Farm and the Fort was very bad, and we did not reach the Fort until 10 o'clock at night. From Dumond's the distance is about 30 miles.
Colvile, Tuesday 13th. Fine weather. In the afternoon Mungo and the two Indians arrived with our luggage.
Wednesday 14th. Cloudy. The forenoon the Accounts arrived from the Kootanies.
Thursday 15th. Showery. The after Express arrived this evening from Vancouver. The English ship arrived at Victoria on the 21st March.
Friday 16th. Fine warm weather. This evening Marineau & the retiring servants arrived with the Accounts from New Caledonia. Michel Ogden likewise arrived with the Thompsons River accounts.
Saturday 17th. Cloudy but no rain. this morning before breakfast the two Boats arrived, in charge of Mr. Lewes. The pieces were carted across in the forenoon, and the boats were likewise hauled across the Portage.
Sunday 18th. Cloudy, with occasional showers of rain.
Monday 19th. Fine weather. Had the boats gummed.
Tuesday 20th. Very warm. The snow has now all disappeared from the [ground] although it was covered when I arrived here on the 12th inst.
Wednesday 21st. Cloudy, and some distant thunder. Marineau started to return to New Caledonia.

Thomas Lowe, Journal from Vancouver to York Factory with Express, Spring 1848:
April 1st, Saturday. Still blowing very strong but made a start in the afternoon, and encamped within sight of the Fort on the opposite side of the River. I have to take up 30 horses from this place to Colvile and as no men can be spared from the Fort, and no Indians can be procured, I have been obliged to give one man from each boat, who are to assist Mr. Peers and Robert Logan to drive them. The party with the horses are to encamp every night with the boats, for mutual protection against the Indians.

A pause, to remind you that this was only four months after the massacre at Waiilatpu, and three months after the rescue of the hostages -- the whole territory was in a state of war!

April 2, Sunday. Strong head wind, so that we could not start until noon. Got about 3 miles above the Nez Perces Forks.
3rd, Monday. Fine weather, and the wind has fallen. Breakfasted at the mouth of the Yackima River, and encamped near the commencement of the Grande Ecores.
4th, Tuesday. Fine weather, and calm. All the passenger got ashore today, and ride along in company with the boats. Made a good days work, considering that the River is at present remarkably low. Encamped about 10 miles below the Priest's Rapids.
5th, Wednesday. Breakfasted about 5 miles below the Priest's Rapids. when we got to the foot of the Rapid, it began to blow strong ahead, and increased so much, that we only got about half way up, although it was dark before we encamped. [It sounds as if there were no Indians to help them this year].
6th, Thursday. Blew very hard all night, and did not moderate until noon, so that we were unable to leave our encampment until this. During the forenoon employed drying some Bales for Colvile which got wet in Joe's boat. Encamped at the head of the Priest's Rapid.
7th, Friday. Had a strong aft wind before breakfast, which carried us a good distance, but afterwards it changed, and came right ahead with a little rain. Got to the travers below the Rocher de Bois about noon and crossed the horses to the South side of the River. There I left the boats to proceed overland to Okanagan with the horses, in company with Mr. Peers and two men, having placed Mr. Robert Logan in charge of the Boats during my absence. The boats started immediately after we had crossed, but we only went about 5 miles, as there was no other places for the horses.
8th, Saturday. Fine warm weather. Travelled over rough rocky ground during the fore part of the day, but in the afternoon had a much better road. Made a good distance, and encamped where the road falls into the Grand Coole.
9th, Sunday. Very warm. The road led through the Grand Coole most of the day, but in the afternoon we struck out towards the River, after having followed the Coole until abreast of the Fort. Encamped a good distance above Okanagan, near the bank of the Columbia.
10th, Monday. Beautiful day. Arrived at Okanagan before noon, but did not cross the horses. Mr. Peers and his two men are to remain here until the boats arrive. Having been about two hours at the Fort, and transacted what little business I had to settle with [Joachim] Lafleur, I started on horseback for Colvile accompanied by an Indian as Guide. As the South side of the River is too dangerous at present, party of Cayouse being scattered here and there along the road, I intend following the North bank. Took one horse to carry the Paper Box, bedding &c. Rode hard, and encamped where the path takes the River.
11th, Tuesday. Beautiful warm weather. Our road today led through a very ... country where there was not a tree to be seen. As there is yet too much snow in the Mountains, we had to follow the river, not being able to take the direct road which strikes inland from our last nights encampment. Considering the nature of the country, we made a good days work, and encamped at the mouth of the Sans Poile River, where there were 3 lodges of Indians, who were very friendly.
12th, Wednesday. Remarkably warm. In the forenoon crossed the Spokan Mountain, where there is yet a good quantity of snow, but not enough to retard us much. Having rode so hard from Okanagan, my horse got completely fagged in the afternoon, and we had to proceed very slowly afterwards in consequence. Encamped about 20 miles below Colvile at the crossing place.
13th, Thursday. Clear warm weather. Crossed over to the South side of the Columbia this morning having procured a canoe from the Indians. Proceeded very slowly, on account of our horses. It was an excellent road through clear open woods, a delightful contrast to the bare and rocky country through which we pass before coming to the Spokan Mountains. Arrived at Colvile about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Here I found that C.T. [Paul] Fraser had arrived from New Caledonia with the accounts and retiring Servants, and Michel Ogden from Thompson's River. The Revd. Messrs. Walker & Eels with their families have likewise been here for the last 6 weeks, having been obliged to abandon their Mission at Tchimakain on account of the Indians who were threatening to murder them, as they had done Dr. Whitman & his people.
14th, Friday. Beautiful day. I have not yet begun to work with the Accounts, not feeling in proper trim after so hard a ride.
15th, Saturday. Splendid weather. In the forenoon the Revd Mr. Eels arrived from Tchimakain, with some property he had left behind there.
16th, Sunday. Beautiful warm weather. The Revd. Mr. Walker read prayers this forenoon in the Hall.
17th, Monday. Cloudy but no rain. Mr. Eels started after breakfast for Spokan, intending to return about Thursday. the river has been rising considerably for some days past.
18th, Tuesday. Warm weather. Working hard at the Accts.
19th, Wednesday. Cloudy and sultry. Mr. Peers arrived with the horses after breakfast. The boats got to Okanagan on the 12th and started the next day. He left Okanagan on the same day as the boats and came up on the North bank of the River. Having got amongst the snow in the Spokan mountains, he had to make towards the river where the road was clear and lost upwards of two days in consequence. He has brought 5 additional horses from Okanagan, but left one of those from Walla Walla on the road.
20th, Thursday. Fine weather. This morning at breakfast time the two boats arrived, and we had them and the property brought across at once. In the afternoon Berland arrived from the Kootanies with his returns, his own Indians driving the horses.
21st, Friday. Good Friday. Warm oppressive weather. Our men did nothing today, as I will not be able to start until Monday.
22nd, Saturday. Overcast. Mr. Eels returned from Spokan today, and has received letters from below where everything is going on quietly. The large bands of Cayuse and Pelluse Indians who were within a couple of days ride of this place have dispersed. Gummed the boats.
23rd, Sunday. Oppressively warm. the Rev. Messr. Eels & Walker had Divine Service in the fort, and Bishop Demers was in one of the houses outside with the Canadians. This is Easter Sunday.

And the final journal is, of course, one of the most interesting ones, it belonging to John Charles --
At the front of the journal [typscript] was a list of items that Charles had to bring back, from York Factory, for the various gentlemen in the Columbia district. Here it is:
Memo for York Factory:
Per Messrs. Barclay and Grahame -- 13 3/4 yds. worsted furniture fringe
Per Mr. Kenneth Logan -- 2 sets Fiddle Strings
Per A.C. Anderson, Esq. -- 2 Pepper Castors and 1 Vinegar Cruet
Per Thomas Hett [Flett?] -- 6 buns. assorted seed Beads, 1 bun. aqua marina necklace, 4 pieces colored Ribbon on a/c
Per Mr. Thomas Charles -- 6 bunches small seed Beads a/c Mr. Thomas Lowe
Per James Goudie -- 1 set Fiddle Strings and 1 box percus[sion] Caps
Memo per Jasper's House -- To speak to Mr. Colin Fraser about getting some Mocassins made for Mr. Thomas Lowe, payment to be brought up from York Factory.

John Charles, Journal of the Columbia Express Party, 1849:
March 30th, Friday. Everything being ready for our overland journey to Colvile, we started from Walla Walla at 1pm. with twelve horses, five of which were loaded, the remaining seven being mounted by Michel, Louis, Indian Guide, Mr. [Thomas] Lowe, Mr. Menetrez and myself. We reached the Touchee where we camped about 7pm., the distance from Walla Walla is computed at twenty miles. Fine weather.
31st, Saturday. Had breakfast the first thing in the morning. The sun was near about setting when we reached the Nez Perces River. Camped on the beach, but soon regretted having done so, for the Wind having suddenly sprung up the sand was blown about in such clouds that we were obliged to hurry to bed for fear of being blinded by it.
April 1st, Sunday. Crossed the Nez Perces river about 10am., Indians assisting us. Encamped at an early hour. Travelled about five and twenty miles to day. Had a passing shower of hail towards the evening.
2nd, Monday. Had breakfast, and started, before sunrise. Gave the horses a rest at a small stream. Camped pretty early, in consequence of no firewood had we proceeded further to day.
3rd, Tuesday. Travelled about 15 miles to day. The Horses being very poor and in a weakly condition we were under the necessity of camping early. Met with a great deal of snow on our route. Passed a good many small lakes and springs. Wild fowl, very numerous. Passed the night under a large red pine tree.

Pause for a note here: Remember that the winter of 1848-1849 was very severe and great amounts of snow  fell on the interior forts, causing havoc to the fur traders in general!

4th, Wednesday. Left our encampment about two hours after sunrise, but were obliged to return to it almost immediately as the horses were utterly unable to proceed in the great depth of snow, which lay around us. Towards evening two Indians arrived from Walla Walla with the accounts of the Snake Country.
5th, Thursday. Not being able to proceed to Colvile with horses, Mr. Lowe, Michel myself and the Indian started on foot about 10 pm. leaving Mr. Menetrez and Louis Aruihunta to take charge of the horses and property until the Indian with a few others were sent to relieve them. We travelled the whole night and a greater part of the following day. Encamped on a hill, in sight of Spokan river. Sent our Indian Guide to the Spokan lodges to procure snow shoes for us. About sunset, three Indians arrived at our fire with the much longed for snow shoes, they slept at our fire.
6th, Friday. Blowing very hard all night. Left our encampment one hour before daylight for the Spokan lodges which we reached a little after sunrise and where Mr. Lowe procured three Indians, 2 to bring my property as also Michel from where we left the horses and 1 to remain with Tatae our Guide to take charge of the horses until the snow disappeared. Snowshoes were also taken by them, for the Rev. Mr. Menetrez and Louis. We crossed the Spokane River after breakfast, having previous engaged two Indians to accompany us, one to carry the Express and the other our provisions, shoes etc. Passed the night at Walker's and Eel's deserted Mission. Road tolerably good.
7th, Saturday. Left the Mission about two hours before sunrise. Encamped at 1pm. the snow being much too soft for us to proceed much further to day. Travelled about 18 miles. Beautiful weather.
8th, Sunday. Arrived at Dumond['s] in time for breakfast which we found uncommonly good. We continued our journey on foot having failed to procure horses from the Freemen. We arrived at Louis' Brown's [sic] (18 miles from the establishment at Fort Colvile) about 4pm. where we passed the night comfortably.
9th, Monday. Left Brown's at broad daylight -- breakfasted at Eneas' or Terre Blanche and arrived at Fort Colvile about half past 3pm.
10th, Tuesday to 14th, Saturday. Mr. Lowe and I employed in closing the Snake Country and Fort Colvile accounts. On the 12th, Louis Aruihunta arrived. Momentarily expecting the New Caledonia express which ought to have arrived at this place some days ago.
15th, Sunday. Dull day. Divine service held by C.T. [Alexander Caulfield] Anderson. No arrivals from New Caledonia or elsewhere.
16th, Monday. Cloudy weather. A party of Colvile Indians gone to the lakes to hunt deer. Ploughing commenced.
17th, Tuesday. Cloudy weather. Pere Menetrez with Pere de Voss paid us a visit in the morning. Michel the Guide getting the boats ready for the Mountain.
18th, Wednesday. Sultry weather. Indian arrived from the Kootanies with the accounts of that place.
19th, Thursday. About 5pm. Joachim Lafleur from Okanagan, and Marineau with five other men from New Caledonia arrived with the accounts. Warm weather.
20th, Friday. Beautiful weather. About noon, Tatae the Indian that we left the horses in charge of arrived with all the horses, property etc. Report among the Indians here that the Company's barque Columbia and an american steam vessel have arrived in the Columbia River.
21st, Saturday. Fine weather. Snow disappearing from the Hills. Mr. Lowe and I using the utmost despatch to get the accounts closed.
22nd, Sunday. Cloudy weather. Prayers read by C.T. Anderson.

I think it appropriate that we end, here, at Fort Colvile with Chief Trader Alexander Caulfield Anderson leading the prayers.
We will continue the upriver journey next week.

Saturday, August 11, 2012

My next project -- in more ways than one!

Well, I have finished the Waillatpu mission story, but please do not believe that this is the whole story.
This bloody massacre at Waillatpu kicked off a whole series of events that changed the entire flavor of the territory around Fort Vancouver and put a tremendous strain on the HBC men at Fort Vancouver.
Because the Columbia River was no longer safe for travel, it forced the men of the interior forts -- Fort St. James, Kamloops, and Fort Colvile -- to bring out their furs over one of two trails that Alexander Caulfield Anderson explored in 1846 and 1847.
And that caused tremendous stress to the men who worked at the interior forts -- as you know if you have read my book: The Pathfinder: A.C. Anderson's Journeys in the West [Heritage House, 2011]
I am assuming that most people who are following this blog know about this book, but if you do not, I am telling you about it now.

The book began as a history and a biography; it ended as my exploration of my great grandfather's character.
Along the way I detailed the stages of his life, and discovered that he never quite fitted into the cultures or groups of people he lived amongst.
Without knowing about the subject at all, I wrote about hegemony -- pronounced hig-em-on-ee.
According to my dictionary, this means "political domination."
But it actually means much more than that -- the best thing for me to do is to explain it briefly and then allow a published article to clarify it for you.

Hegemony means "leadership," and is an indirect form of imperial dominance in which the 'leader state' rules subordinate people by the implied means of power, the threat of a threat rather than by direct military force.
According to Wikipedia, in ancient Greece, hegemony meant the political and military dominance of one city-state over other city-states.
Later, hegemony came to mean the political and cultural predominance of one country upon others ie: the Romans invading old Britain and forcing its inhabitants to retreat into the north.
More recently, the North Vietnamese invaded Saigon after a long battle, and changed the culture of that city forever.
But in the time that we are all interested in -- the early to mid-1800's -- the Hudson's Bay Company men controlled, and changed, the entire area west of the Rocky Mountains -- that, too, is hegemony.
Following is a clearer definition of hegemony, written by a social scientist -- one who studies societies or a society.
This is an abstract of an article published in the Canadian Political Science Review, Vol.2 (2), June 2008, written by Lisa Philips of the University of Alberta.
The article is called "Transitional Identities: Negotiating Social Transitions in the Pacific Northwest 1825-1860s."
You can download this article from the internet.
Anyway, this is what the abstract says:
"When one studies a specific society, hegemonic practice is so deeply rooted that it is often difficult to study it from outside that system.
"However, there are periods of dramatic social change when ongoing social practice in a geographic space is disrupted.
"On such occasions hegemonic forces can be seen, as it were, from outside of assumed practice.
"The northwest coast of North America provides such an opportunity.
"From 1818 to 1846, the British and American states shared jurisdiction over the territory with sovereignty under constant negotiation.
"The Hudson's Bay Company established a substantial commercial presence in the region from the 1820s to the 1850s.
"During the 1830s and 1840s, massive immigration from the eastern United States shifted the population balance to favour those with ties to the United States.
"The imposition of the border across the northwest in 1846 marked a significant watershed in the evolution of social control in the region."

Any one who is interested in their fur trade family and what happened to them as the result of the massive American immigration, or British colonialization (as in British Columbia), should read this article!

Anyway, I told you that this post was about my next project -- in more ways than one.
You have read my three postings about the massacre at Waiilatpu, and I am sure you realize it took me a long time to research this and put it together.
I suspect that the missionary's work at Waiilatpu would be considered, by a social scientist, a fine example of a failed hegemony.
As far as I can tell right now, this is where my next book will begin.
What that means is that I am not going to tell you anything more about the changes that occurred in the fur trade of Fort Vancouver -- the changes that occurred after the massacre at Waillatpu.
You will have to wait for my next book, to find out the rest of the story.
What I am doing right now is requesting and reading microfilms from the HBCA, and that all takes a tremendous amount of time and energy.
Sooooooo, how do I continue this blog?

It's easy.
I still have lots of information -- it's putting it together that is work.
And so, right now, I will take an easy path, and tell the story of the various York Factory expresses that left Fort Vancouver for the east.
There are an amazing number of them available in various archives, and I have stumbled across quite a number of them, without even trying.
I have, of course, the two journals and a half-journal that Thomas Lowe kept -- they are in the British Columbia archives and I have owned these journals for years.
One of the journals that follows is not actually a York Factory Express journal; but it followed the same path to Fort Colvile, at least:
So, lets follow all of these expressmen on their various journies from Fort Vancouver to Fort Nez Perces, at Walla Walla:

Journal of a voyage across the Continent of North America in 1826, by Aemilius Simpson, R.N. -- as this is a journal from York Factory to Vancouver, you will not see any part of it soon. But it is an interesting private journal, though I have omitted a great many paragraphs where he speaks of looking after his delicate navigational instruments.
As you see, I am not necessarily telling you where some of these are stored -- you may have to discover them for yourselves.
I must also warn you; they may be incomplete, or edited, by me.
In the end, you may have to do your own research!

York Factory Express Journal (1827) by Edward Ermatinger:
March 1827. Tuesday 20th. Fair weather. The express Boat leaves Fort Vancouver at 1/4 before 6 o'clock pm. A second Boat accompanies us as far as the Chutes to assist in carrying our Boat over them and to strengthen the party.
Passengers -- Messrs McLoughlin [Dr. John McLoughlin], McLeod [Alex R. McLeod], Douglas [David Douglas], Pambrun [Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun], Annance [Francois Annance], and E. Ermatinger. Proceed 3 miles and encamp.
21st. Embark at 4am. Breakfast at the upper end of Prairie du the. Head wind strong all day. Encamp at the end of Portage Neuf. Trade 1 sturgeon and 1 salmon trout. Patches of snow along the banks of the river.
22nd. Rain most of the day. Clear the Cascades Portage by 1/2 past 11 o'clock. Sail and paddle the rest of the day. Encamp a little below Cape Horn at 6pm.
23rd. Rainy weather. Start at 5am. Breakfast below the Dalles. Encamp above the little Dalles (discharged part of our baggage) at 6pm. Saw the corpse of a woman on this Portage, lying in a hole, close to the track, which had been made for some other purpose, entirely naked, left a pray to the crows so little are these savages actuated by decency.
24th. Fine weather. Start at 5am. Pass our Baggage and Boat and clear the Chutes portage by 11am. The other Boat and crew return to the Fort. Hoist sail with a stiff breeze. Doctor McLoughlin and Mr. McLeod remain behind to hire horses to carry them to Walla Walla. Encamp three miles above J. Day's River at 5pm. having waited for the Doctor and Mr. McLeod who were unable to procure horses. They left Ouvre (Jean Baptist Ouvre) with Indians who had sent for horse which he was to bring up. He arrives after dark with 5 accompanied by 2 Indians. Being ahead of the Indians, escorted only a Baptiste, a slave, he was attacked by 4 others who wished to pillage him. They, however, cut them off and took their arrows away from them which Ouvre brought with him as spoils of war. The Slave's having a gun conduced most to their safety.
Sunday 25th. Fine weather. We are unable to agree with the Indians for the loan of their horses, therefore the gentlemen walk by turns to lighten the boat which  is insufficient to carry all the baggage and 7 passengers besides an extra man and the Indian slave. Proceed at 1/2 past 5. Hoist sail with a light breeze which continues all day. Assist with the Poles and Paddles. Encamp about 6 miles below the Gros isle at 6pm.
Monday 26th. Some light ran at noon rest of the day fine. Embark at 5am. Breakfast at 10 at the tail of the larger island. Proceed to the end of it. Find Indians with horses hire 3. Ouvre returns to our breakfast place in search of a gun left there by mistake. Encamp at 3 o'clock to wait his return.
27th. Fine weather. Two men who went with Ouvre return early this morning and inform us that he has gone in pursuit of an Indian who had watched our departure and made off with the gun. At 8 o'clock Messrs. McLoughlin, McLeod and Ermatinger take horses and arrive at Walla Walla at 5pm. the boats starts at the same time, sail wind. Encamp above the Grand Rapid.
28th. The Boat arrives at Walla Walla by 11 o'clock am. Ouvre also arrives on foot having recovered the gun with the aid of Tomas Tippuri's (the Walla Walla chief) wife. The Boat having been pitched and our business at this place settled, we resume our journey.....

Express Journal, Spring, 1828 (Edward Ermatinger):
March, 22nd, Saturday. Two boats with the Express take their departure from Fort Vancouver about 10am laden as follows:
[There is a long list which I am not going to copy out, but here are the crew and passengers];
P.L. Etienne, Guide; C. Lacourse, Bout; Jos. Louis; Louis Shacgoskatsta; A. Vincent; Kahanow; Kahanow; John Simpson; Ladrioute & Fallardeau, with Messrs Dears, Edward Ermatinger, and Donald Manson in one boat
M. Otoctanie; P. Karaganyate; P. Gilbot; V. Beaudin; P. Dubois; J. B. Dubois; Carvoman; Thos. Canasanasette; and passengers M. Laframboise; J. Randall
Messrs. Manson and Laframboise (Michel) with 2 men go with us as far as the Chutes in case the Indians should be numerous -- continues raining all day. Encamp a few miles below the Cascades.
23rd. Rains almost the whole day incessantly. Start at 1/2 6am.; detained more than 1/2 the day at the Cascades Portage and have great difficulty in getting up the boats owing to the lowness of the water, and encamp just above the portage at 1/2 past 5 pm. in order to gum our boats. See very few Indians.
24th. Fine weather. Start at 5am. Sail all day with a fresh breeze and encamp about half way up the Grand Dalles. Indians not numerous about us -- however we find it necessary to keep watch all night. Prepare and load our muskets.
25th. Tolerable weather. Got over the Grande Dalles by a little after eight am. having carried our baggage from our last night's encampment. Lighten at the little Dalles portage. then proceed to the Chutes which we clear by 5pm., but few Indians on the Portage. Here Mr. Manson and party take leave of us to return to Fort Vancouver. Leaving the Chutes hoist sail with a strong breeze and proceed till 7 o'clock when we encamp some distance below John Day's River.
26th. Fine weather. Hoist sail this morning with a very strong breeze which continues all day and obliges us to reef half our sails. Encamp about 5 miles below the Long Island at 1/2 past 6 am.
27th. Thursday. Fine weather. Start at 1/2 past 4am. A light breeze assists in pushing us forward all day. Encamp at 1/2 past 6 about a league above the Grand Rapid. See a good many geese to-day but kill none. Very few Indians along the river.
28th. Fine weather. Arrive at Walla Walla before 8am. Delivered over to Mr. Black (Samuel Black) 5 Barrels Potatoes, 1 two gn Keg Butter and a Ham supplies, also 1 keg Jama. Rum, 1 galln out of the voyage stores, Mr. B. being entirely destitute of that article. Made over to this place two men, Fallardeau and J.B. Dubois -- the former was appointed by Doctor McLoughlin to be exchanged for Bouche, but this man having died here during winter leave the Columbia one short of the number calculated upon.
Dubois was only to have taken the place of Joyalle when the Brigade should come down, it having been understood by the Doctor that this man had not given regular notice and was therefore liable to be detained another year, but Mr. Black says he gave him notice last year and that he is entitled to go out, this being the case I was obliged to give the above man for him. This I did with great reluctance it not having been so settled by the Doctor.

James Douglas: Diary of a Journey from Fort Vancouver in 1835 (B/20/1858, BCA):
Tuesday 3rd March 1835: Left Fort Vancouver today at 9 o'clock with three boats manned with 29 Canadian and Irriquois, part of whom are to be left at Fort Colvile in order to assist the summer brigade in its ascent to Vancouver with the annual returns of furs, an object which cannot be accomplished by the servants remaining in the interior. The rest of our part at present intend to retired from the service and are thus commencing their journey for Canada. We landed at the sawmill and remained there for nearly an hour. It works 12 saws and cuts about 3500 feet of inch boards during the 24 hours. Proceeding from the mill the progress of the boats was greatly retarded by a violent South East wind accompanied with slight showers of rain which induced us to encamp for the night a short distance above the Prairie du The. The water of the river is exceedingly muddy making it quite impossible to perceive either stick or stone even tho' nearly on a level with its surface. Owing to this cause chiefly the boats received some hard shocks during the day's journey, and they are in consequence in a very leaky state. Some patches of snow were observed along the banks of the river. The country on both sides is thickly wooded and offers nothing gratifying to the eye of the traveller.
Wed. 4. The wind still continuing to blow with great violence we could not leave our encampment until broad daylight. And even then we left it uncertain of being able to pass the lofty basaltic rocks which were at a short distance above us. As we advanced the gale appeared to freshen, but on reaching the spot where the difficulties had been anticipated we found things nearly in a state of calm, and during the remainder of the day we proceeded onwards at a good steady rate. At 3 o'clock reached the lower end of the Cascades Portage and after transporting all cargoes to the upper end we stopped for the night. The boats will be brought up tomorrow morning. The continuation of the Cascade Hills forms the South bank of the river which is covered with snow to the water's edge. The North bank is comparatively low and both thickly wooded. The whole form as gloomy a prospect as can well be imagined. A little below the Cascades Mr. [Peter Skene] Ogden and myself landed and walked up following the Indian path thro' the woods. We found four inches of snow on the ground which has evidently fallen but very lately as on some patches of ground already uncovered the green grass is four inches in length.
Thurs. 5. At dawn of day the men were on the alert and returned to the lower end of the portage for the boats which have passed the night there. The water being low considerable difficulty was experienced in passing the boats; this was done by dragging them along shore, sometimes in deep water, at others over the stones by means of wooden rollers collected from the Indian fishing stages. On reaching the upper end they were turned up and pitched anew. This operation and that of reloading were not finished before 11 o'clock when all being ready we left the Cascades behind. The wind being very favourable the sails were immediately extended to catch the welcome breeze which tho' but very gentle proved of great assistance was [sic] during the rest of the day. The chain of Mountains of which Mount St. Helens forms one of the most prominent and well known peaks joins the north bank of the river above the Cascades, and directly opposite on the southern bank appears an angle of the range which bounds the south side of the river as far down as the Quicksand River, and from thence running nearly due south extends to the Umpqua Country. Of this chain the two lofty peaks named Mounts Hood and McLoughlin from[sic] a part. The continuation of these two ranges to the Eastward runs parallel with the river, and form as it were its Northern & Southern banks. Up to the close of this days journey [blank] at the upper end of the Grand Bature snow visible on all sides. Purchased a little fresh meat from the Indians encamped on the Bature. These Indians have not yet quitted their winter habitations but will soon move off to other parts of the country where various kinds of nutritious roots are produced in great abundance which they collect and use as food. Early in Summer they return to the River & preserve salmon for the exigencies of the Winter.
Friday 6th. March. During the night our repose was disagreeably interrupted by a violent storm of rain accompanied by slight showers. The boats being in a very exposed and insecure situation it required our unremitting attention to guard them from injury. At dawn of day we left our encampment with the wind favourable but still rather violent and squally. We proceeded onward at a great rate. No snow in the vicinity of the river; vegetation begins to appear on the sloping hills, and the face of nature is everywhere undergoing a rapid change, and the eye of the spectator is continually delighted with her varied beauties just bursting into existence. In ascending the Great Dalles one boat received a slight injury by coming in contact with another. Passed the smaller Dalles without accident, and gained the Falls at 4 o'clock with the assistance of a considerable concourse of natives. The whole property was transported over the carrying place before we encamped; the boats remain at the lower end. The continuation of the Hills mentioned yesterday continue to follow a direction parallel with the river, at times receding from it, and at others approaching to the waters edge.
Saty. 7. At dawn of day all the men proceeded to the place where the boats were left yesterday and with the aid of nearly 70 Indians they were soon carried over; and after making some necessary repairs they were loaded and we proceeded on our journey at 1/2 past 10 am. A gentle breeze aided our ascent considerably and we succeeded in gaining a point covered with willows a few miles above Days River before encamping. The hills on both sides of the River rise to the height of several hundred feet and are very broken and irregular. They are not uniformly covered with vegetation, and the numerous strata of volcanic rock which project abruptly from their sides gives them a rugged & sterile appearance. During this day's march we passed the entrance of the Falls and John Day's River both deriving their sources from the Blue Mountains. Beaver was at one time found abundantly on these streams but is now nearly extirpated, being incessantly exposed to the ravages of the hunters. The country to the Southward of this is I am informed very beautiful and varied, groves of trees watered by fertilizing streams and extensive prairies succeeding each other alternately. [He was travelling with Peter Skene Ogden, remember.] In a country possessing such eminent advantages agricultural improvements might be introduced to a considerable extent, and could be continued with a comparatively trifling expense. The great evil of this climate is the excessive heat and dryness of summer. But this defect might in a great measure be remedied by the numerous rivulets which would serve to irrigate and diffuse fertility over the whole fact of the country.
Sunday 8th March. Weather Cloudy & threatening rain. Proceeded on our route at half past five o'clock. We made but little progress during the early part of the day having to ascend a constant succession of rapid currents for some distance above our encampment. Passed the Favonel at 12 o'clock, and soon after a gentle breeze which had filled our sails with little effect during the morning's march suddenly freshening up the boats drove away before it at a great rate, overtaken by the night, at a place where no better fuel than growing willows and wormwood could be procured, with these miserable substitutes succeeded in preparing for ourselves a very comfortable supper. The banks particularly on the South Side are less elevated and are becoming more regular and uniform as we ascend. No trees of any kind can be observed from the boats. The Country all around us is the most sterile and barren imaginable, the only soil is pur sand producing wormwood and scanty tufts of grass.
Mon. 9. March. We had last night the Company of a few Indians who visited our encampment with the hopes of obtaining a supply of tobacco a gratification to which they appear to be passionately addicted. Their wishes were easily satisfied, and they soon left us to return to their homes. The wind still in our favour during some hours after our departure. It afterwards ceased and we continued moving slowly at times, with the poles at [sic] others paddling until the afternoon when the sails were again hoisted, and we proceeded upwards very rapidly. Encamped at the commencement of the Grand Rapid.
Tuesday 10. A very stormy night which rendered unremitting attention to the boats necessary. Ascended the Grand Rapid with some difficulty but without accident. the river is exceedingly low, and the boats were forced to keep very far out in order to avoid the shoals which everywhere obstructed their progress nearer shore. At 2 o'clock arrived at Fort Nez Perces where an immense concourse of Indians are assembled from all quarters, consisting of various tribes, namely Nez Perces under which general name may be included the Pellouches, Walla Wallas, Yakimas, and the scattered inhabitants of the River who posses our common language and derive their different appellations from their places of residence or some other important cause, rather than from any striking national dissimilarity; and another tribe called Cayauses whose language is entirely different from the others.

Journal of a Trip from Vancouver to York Factory, Spring 1847, by Thomas Lowe, in charge of the party, A/B/20.4/L95, BCA, & HBCA in Thomas Lowe papers, I believe:
Wednesday 24th March 1847 -- Started from Vancouver at noon with two boats, under a salute from the Fort. Had 9 men in each Boat, and about 30 pieces principally provisions for the voyage. Passengers Mr. Lewes, who goes up as far as the Chute, and Mr. Joe Burke who is on his way to England intending to go home by way of Hudsons Bay. Dined at the Saw Mill, and pushed on five miles beyond, where we encamped for the night, being under the necessity of having one of the boats gummed, as the Boutes had not been able to gum it before starting. Beautiful weather, and light on down the River.
Thursday 25th -- Started at daylight with a strong head wind. Breakfasted at Prairie du The, and in consequence of the strength of the wind had to take the inner channel of the River about three miles below Cape Horn, which was found too shallow at the upper end, and we were obliged to make a portage of the pieces for a distance of 3/4 of a mile. when we reached Cape Horne the wind lulled and in course of the afternoon a light favorable breeze sprung up, with the aid of which we reached the lower end of the first rapid below the Cascades, where we encamped for the night, on the South side of the River. Windy but no rain.
Friday 26th -- Made the Portage, and encamped at the upper end, the water being so very low that it was found necessary to drag the boats over the rocks, and in doing so they were so much strained that they both had to be gummed afresh. Beautiful weather.
Saturday 27th -- Started at daylight, and a fresh breeze having sprung up about 8 o'clock, we made good days [journey?] and encamped in the evening below the Mission at the Dalles. Had a slight shower in the afternoon.
Sunday 28th -- Showery. Passed the Dalles with the assistance of Indians whom we engaged to haul on the line and having reached the lower end of the Chutes in the afternoon the [illegible] the Portage by the Indians. Encamped at the upper end of the Chutes, and had the boats gummed.
Monday 29th -- Beautiful day. Had a fine breeze under noon, after which it fell calm. Current unusually strong. Encamped about 10 miles above John Dease's River. [John Day's River?]
Tuesday 30th -- Weather clear and warm, but a strong head wind all day, and consequently made slow progress. The boats were a good deal scraped in coming up the rapids, and had to be gummed, Encamped a few miles below the lower end of the Big Island.
Wednesday 31st -- Remarkably hot. Had a light head wind. Encamped at the lower end of the Grand Rapid. The Indians whom we passed assisted us a good deal in tracking the boat with their horses.
Thursday 1st April -- Beautiful warm day, but wind still against us. Passed the Grand Rapid before breakfast, and had to gum the boats at the head of the Rapid. Hard work tracking and poling the remainder of the day. Arrived at Fort Nez Perces about 7 o'clock in the evening.

Thomas Lowe, Journal from Vancouver to York Factory with Express, Spring 1848: (again, in the BCA)
March 20, Monday -- About 3 pm I started from Fort Vancouver with three boats in charge of the express. [One?] of these boats is to return from the Chutes, and accompanies us merely to assist in carrying our boats and property across the Portages, and to make a stronger party in case of any danger from the Indians. When we started the Fort fired a salute of 7 guns, as did also the Brig Mary Dare. Mr[s]. Ermatinger & daughter, Bishop Demers, and Mr. Robert Logan cross the Mountains, and Mr. [Henry] Peers accompanies us as far as Colvile, from whence he is to proceed to New Caledonia. Narcisse Raymond likewise goes up as passenger as far as Walla Walla. There are only 8 retiring servants, the remainder of the crew is made up of men from Vancouver. There are 9 men per boat, and each boat has 31 pieces, composed principally of provisions. Encamped about 5 miles above the Saw Mill. It has been showery all day. We have got 3 tents to pitch every night.
March 21, Tuesday -- Rained a little in the morning, but kept fair the most of the day. Breakfasted at Prairie de The. After Breakfast met a canoe with the 3 American Commissioners who had gone up to settle their differences with the Indians. They have done all that can be done at present, and are now on their return to the Willamette. A few minutes afterward met a skiff with Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell and 3 priests, on their way to Vancouver. Had a fair breeze after passing Prairie de The, which took us up to the Cascades. Encamped on the South side of the River nearly opposite Portage M....
March 22, Wednesday -- Rainy. Had the pieces carried across the Portage. The boats were got up very easily. Breakfasted at the upper end, and started from .... at 3pm. Encamped about 10 miles above.
23. Thursday -- Fine weather. Had a good breeze of wind, and ... up to the [American] Mission at the Dalles.
24. Friday -- Fine weather and blowing very strong up the River. Got through the Dalles without much trouble and on arrival at the Chutes had all the pieces taken across, but the boats are left until tomorrow. Encamped at the upper end of the Portage.
25. Saturday -- Had two of the boats carried across this morning, the other one returns from this place to Vancouver in charge of Charles Proulx. Marc Charles deserted at the Portage, and we had to push on without him. As it came on to blow a perfect gale, were obliged to put ashore in the afternoon, about 10 miles above the Chutes.
Mar. 26. Sunday. Remained windbound until the afternoon when we started under sail, and encamped a little above John Days River. Clear weather.
27th. Monday -- Had a sail wind all day, but lost a great deal of time at a Rapid below Point Yes [?], where Joe broke his boat and nearly filled. Had to get it repaired, and both of them gummed so that it was nearly noon before we were ready to start. Made a good distance before encamping.
28th. Tuesday -- Rainy unpleasant weather. Had some sailing, and got to within about 10 miles of the Grand Rapid.
29th. Wednesday -- Fine weather, but no wind. Breakfast at the foot of the Grand Rapid. Joe injured his boat again today in the Grand Rapid, and we had to camp rather earlier than usual to have it gummed. In the afternoon had a sail wind, attended with rain. Encamped about 6 miles below the Fort.
March 30th. Thursday. Fine weather, but blowing strong. Reached Walla Walla about noon, delivered 11 pieces of goods to Mr. [William] McBean, and had the boats hauled up and gummed.
31st. Friday -- Blowing a perfect gale of wind, and unable to start.

John Charles, Journal of the Columbia Express Party, 1849, A/B/20.4/C38A [this might be old number, not current] BCA
1849. March 20th, Tuesday. I, John Charles, in company with Mr. [Thomas] Lowe, in charge of the express as far as Fort Colvile, started from Fort Vancouver with two boats laden with the Fort Nez Perce Outfit and provisions etc. per party, amounting in all to about 45 pieces and manned by five Iroquois, nine Indians, one Kanaka [Hawaiian] and 1 Canadian. Mr. Menetrez passenger. Encamped at the Saw Mill. Wet weather.
21st, Wednesday. Left the Saw Mill at day break -- breakfasted at Parkers and camped at an early hour a little way below the Cascades. Sailed almost all day. Weather wet and squally.
22nd, Thursday. Embarked in the boats at peep of day and put ashore at the lower end of the Cascade portage where we discharged the boat and breakfasted. After breakfast the pieces were carried over to the Upper end; one of the boats was also taken up to the same point where we passed the night. Weather, unpleasant. Water unusually low. Snow, knee deep on the portage.
23rd, Friday. Had the other boat taken up the Rapids. Gummed the boats as well as the unfavorable state of the weather would permit. Remained at the Cascades all day and night. Allowed the men an extra allowance of rum, according to promise made to them by the Board.
24th, Saturday. Beautiful weather. Left the Cascades about 9 o'clock am. Sailed all way up to our encampment which was about a distance of five miles below the Mission at Wascopar or the Dalles.
25th. Sunday. Embarked about half an hour before sunrise. Breakfasted on a rock immediately below the grand Dalles where Mr. Lowe, Mr. Menetrez and I procured horses and rode to the Chutes. Here we found upwards of one hundred Indians with their horses waiting the arrival of the boats which were, as also the cargoes, with their assistance carried over to the Upper end of the Chutes portage where we camped. Weather exceedingly warm.
26th. Monday. The boats being thoroughly repaired we were enabled to leave the Chutes about half past seven am. Breakfasted on a fine sandy point opposite Chutes Island and encamped vis a vis the Riviere Finale. Sailed all day. Clear weather. Traded a few trout from the Indians, at our encampment.
27th. Tuesday. Left our encampment at day-break, breakfasted opposite the Riviere Quinal and put ashore at the lower end of the grand Rapide where we camped. Sailed all day. Weather, cloudy. Wind blowing very strong. Encountered a good deal of ice.
28th. Wednesday. Breakfasted at the head of the grand Rapids. Reached Walla Walla about 5 pm. Warm weather.
29th. Thursday. Sent Grand Joe back to Vancouver with one boat, laden with the Fort Nez Perces Returns and property belonging to Rev. Mr. Spalding and manned by all the men brought up, with the exception of Michel the Guide and Louis Aruihunta. Mr. McBean has traded twelve horses for our journey to Fort Colvile. Weather, exceedingly warm.

And, finally, this is the journal of a trip to Walla Walla that is not an Express journal, but a delivery trip and a journey to Fort Colvile to help bring down the incoming express boats:
Thomas Lowe, Journal of Voyage from Vancouver to Walla Walla and back, 1849, A/B/20.4/L95oA, BCA:
August 29th, Wednesday. At 1pm started from Vancouver in charge of a boat laden with 41 pieces goods pr Walla Walla, and 3 pieces for the Dalles. The crew consisted of:
Joe Anowanoron (Bowswain); Charles Teousarakontes (steersman); Edward Beauchemin, and Louis Dauny, Canadians; William Towai, Halfbreed Kanaka; Peter and Kapeet, Indians; Kashoosha.
So that we are well manned, Joe takes up his wife and son, as he is to proceed to Colvile by land from Walla Walla accompanied by the other Iroquois (Charles) in order to assist in bringing down the express boats. Beauchemin [who if you remember was the French-Canadian at Fort Nez Perces who brought the news of the massacre to Fort Vancouver], Dauny and the two last Indians return with me from Walla Walla, and as the boat is to be left there for Mr. Grant [of Fort Hall, Snake district] we are to return on horse back by the way of Oregon City. William and Peter are to be stationed at Walla Walla [Fort Nez Perces]. On starting found that Joe was intoxicated, and it was with much difficulty I could get him to start. Pulled up to the Saw Mill, remained there about an hour, and encamped at a small Creek about half a mile beyond. Warm weather.
30th. Tuesday. Breakfasted at Parker's house, after breakfast we had a strong head wind until towards evening. About noon we were obliged to put ashore for upwards of two hours below the Grosse Rocks. Carried on till late and encamped near the foot of the first Rapid below the Cascades. Another warm day.
31st. Friday. Dull cloudy weather, and the air full of smoke. As the water was very strong and only one boats crew to haul the Rope had to discharge half the cargo at Portage Neure. Breakfasted at the lower end of the Cascade Portage. Engaged 10 Indians to assist in bringing up the boat and in transporting the pieces. The boat was easily brought up, and after gumming we started at 4pm. with a fair wind from the upper end of the Cascades and made about 10 miles before camping.
Sept. 1st, Saturday. Fine warm day. Had a very fine strong breeze all day. Had to close reef the sail. Breakfasted above the Two Rivers and arrived at the Mission Station at the Dalles at about 4pm. Here unloaded 2 bags flour for Raymond, 1 bag salt for Rev. Mr. Rousseau, and left with the latter some provisions for my trip back. Encamped about half way up the Grand Dalles. Killed a sheep I brought from Vancouver.
2nd, Sunday. The water is still high and the current strong. Had much difficulty in getting up the Dalles, having had to make two trips with the boat from a short distance above our campment, each time with a half load, and at the upper end had to make a portage of all the pieces and take up the boat light. After having made one trip the boat returned to take up the remainder of the pieces, and we breakfasted before taking up the second load. Had also to make a Portage of half the pieces at the Little Dalles, so that the sun was almost setting when we arrived at the Chutes, although we had a fine breeze all day. Found an American named Kellog, and some other trading Horses. Encamped there.
3rd, Monday. Engaged 40 Indians to carry the boat across and hired horses for the men to transport the pieces. When all was across breakfasted at the upper end, and afterwards started with a fine breeze. Encamped about 2 miles above Point Yes. Fine weather.
4th, Tuesday. Had a light favourable breeze until breakfast time after which it died away, and continued calm during the rest of the day. Breakfasted a little above the Finale, and passed the Riviere Quinelle about noon. Encamped about 10 miles below the Grosse Isle.
5th, Wednesday. Fine warm weather, and calm. Breakfasted at the lower end of the Grasse [Grosse?] Isle. Engaged 3 horses to haul the line, and they ran the boat up to the end of the Island in a very short time. Encamped opposite the mouth of the Umatilla.
6th, Thursday. Head wind all day, but generally not very strong. Breakfasted about 4 miles abode the Grand Rapid, and arrived at Fort Nez Perces an hour after sundown.
7th, Friday. Very warm. Had the pieces brought into the Fort early this morning and in the afternoon got the boat hauled up and placed alongside the Fort wall. Making arrangements for our departure to morrow on our return to Vancouver on horseback, and for Joe's trip to Colvile. Leave three men here to fill up vacancies, William Towai, Peter and Kapeet.

There were are -- we have seven journeys up the Columbia River from Fort Vancouver to Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla).
How many more express journals are there? -- I don't know.
I know there is a Francis Ermatinger one for the year 1824 or thereabouts, and possibly one for 1829??
But of these seven journalers, six will continue further; one returns to Fort Vancouver.
You can have some fun figuring out where these expressmen rested for the night, how many days they took and what delays or troubles they encountered on their upriver journey.

Clerk Alexander Caulfield Anderson took the York Factory express out in spring 1842, and though no journal survives of that trip, I can, by comparing all of these, take a guess at where he was.
As those of you who read my book know he did not have an easy time of this journey:
This is what I wrote in Chapter 10:

"The express boats arrived at Fort Colvile on April 17, 1842, and after installing his family in their room in the fort, where they would remain until his return in the fall, Anderson began preparations for the long journey across the continent to York Factory.
"The closing of the year's business delayed the express' departure until April 24, and when it finally got underway, there were further delays.
"Rain caused the Columbia River to flood between the Upper Arrow Lakes and the vicious rapids called Les Dalles des Morts.
"Anderson later reported that the Hudson's Bay Express boats generally reached Boat Encampment in 10 days.
""In 1842 I ... reached the mountains only on the twelfth day, though my boats were unusually well manned with Canadian and other voyageurs, and the most expert Iroquois conductors."